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作者:徐業良(2008-11-24);推薦:徐業良(2008-11-24)

日本亞太立命館大學參訪心得

本文為200811月主任秘書任內,隨同元智大學「主管團隊研習營」三十餘位主管前往日本亞太立命館大學(Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, APU),參訪其雙語大學執行成效之參訪心得報告。

1.     元智和APU定位的差異

APU是一所歷史較短的學校,建校便以雙語大學為主要特色,45%的學生為外籍生、外籍生來自83國,能夠真正建置 “multi-culture environment”APU一半的教師為外籍教師,軟硬體建置也完全以雙語大學為考量,確實讓我們看到“bilingual university in action”APU以培養國際學生對亞太地區的認識為主要目的,兩個學院也分別是“Asia Pacific Studies”“Asia Pacific Management”

元智大學則有20年發展,雖然也算年輕,但有許多長久追求的目標和價值,「雙語大學」只是其中之一,可能無法將所有資源與環境規劃都僅以「雙語大學」為唯一主軸。本校外籍生人數目標初期僅在2%,以台灣的薪資條件也很難吸引到許多外籍教師。我一直認為元智建置雙語大學的目的,在培養元智學生專業上的語言能力和國際觀,招收外籍學生、英語授課、國際化環境建置等措施,都只是為了實現這個目的。

元智大學建置雙語大學的方向已經清楚,但具體定位一直還沒有定調,應在Vision 20策略規劃中清楚宣示。

2.     About teaching in English

I joined the group to audit the “Migration Study EA” course by Prof. Kee in the first morning. The classroom facility was great. The lecture hall was big, housing about 200 seats. I was surprised that there were less than 20 students in that particular class. There were several large LCD screens hanging on the ceiling, which reminds me of the big lecture halls in Stanford. Such devices should be necessary for effective teaching in a large-class setting.

Prof. Kee speaks perfect English. The whole lecture was conducted completely in English. However, the teaching style of this particular professor was still rather traditional. In the short 15 min. of lecture, I did not see any interaction between the professor and the students. Actually I observed that most of the students were just sitting there listening. Very few students took notes, and some students’ desks were empty, what I see very often in the classrooms in YZU.

We were than invited to attend a symposium. I was not paying attention when they introduced the significance of this symposium, so I was not quite sure why we were sitting there. The symposium started like a general international conference, until the first speaker, the former governor of Oita, spoke in Japanese, with a translator doing sentence-by-sentence translation, which was, dragging. The 2nd speech by the first secretary of the South Africa Embassy was made it English. No translation was needed, but my dragging feeling did not go away. I realized it was not the speakers’ faults, I was just not ready receiving the topics of the talks. I managed to squeeze out one meaningful conclusion. It’s whether the content interests the audience and how the content is delivered to the audience that is important, bilingual or not.

I have been teaching in English in YZU for many years. In my lecture, I use half English half Chinese, since there were no international students sitting in my class. I think it would be a lot more natural lecturing in English if there are international students sitting in the class. I had two intern students sitting in my undergraduate class for two months last semester, and I have one international students sitting in my graduate class this semester. Then I can deliver the whole lecture in English.

Another point I want to make is that, lecturing in English is not the whole thing. For many years, I forced students to write their reports in English, and even encourage them to make presentation in English. I think these are more meaningful then just lecture in English, especially when there is no international student in the class.

3.     國際師資招聘

日本長期以來都有外籍留學生,接觸到APU幾位外教授(包括汪正仁教授),都是留日的留學生,長期待在日本,日語流利、對日本文化接受度高,另一方面日本教師薪資也比較有競爭力。在國際師資的招聘上,元智大學的確無法競爭,目前增聘通識英語外籍教師,要求新聘本國教師能有英語授課能力,似乎是不得不然的作法。

4.     永續經營的規劃

APU讓我覺得比較驚訝的地方,是一年學費達到140萬日圓,生活費約100萬日圓,換算起來大約美金25,000元。在這樣的花費下,APU將很難與歐美著名大學競爭。APU資料顯示其國際學生70%學費被免除,高額學費、獎學金加上大量國際學生,很難想像APU如何永續經營。

在這一點上元智大學有明顯優勢,以目前學雜費不列收入和支出、外籍生免費住宿、研究生補貼生活費的規劃下,元智大學應能競爭到開發中國家的留學生,資源投入上也能作永續經營的規劃。

5.     Teaching in English is a MUST

APU was a new university set up for the goal of becoming an international university. International students were there from day 1. YZU has its tradition and culture. International students will have to fit in. There is still a long way to go for YZU to become some sort of bilingual university or internationalized university.

During the trip, t

here are still many debates and worries between the professors in YZU too. However, I felt that people are more convinced that “teaching in English is a MUST”, especially for YZU.

Let’s keep going.